MBA Course Specialization – Do You Need to Specialize?

One thing you have to decide while taking an MBA course is whether or not you want to select a specialization. You can get a one year MBA which just teaches the basics of management, but you also have the option of selecting a two year MBA program which devotes the second year to a specialization. This specialization is chosen according to the type of industry you would like to work in after graduation.Types of MBA SpecializationHere is a list of the most basic and commonly taught types of MBA course specialization:• Finance
• Marketing
• Human Resources
• IT Systems
• Operations
• EntrepreneurshipYou can select between these different specializations to aim a part of your education toward a particular type of job. You still get all of the standard MBA course information that would otherwise be taught, but you go to school longer to get specific training related to these individual fields.There are also some different specializations now coming out with different MBA programs. These tend to be very specific to different industries and are typically found with online MBA programs that aren’t very reputable. It is questionable how in-depth and valuable the extra coursework for these “special” specialties really is with most programs.If you decide to specialize for your MBA course, it is best to stick with one of the recognized and well known specialties listed above.Benefits of MBA SpecializationThe obvious benefit to specializing your MBA course is that you become more marketable in the industry that you have chosen to specialize in. While your basic MBA degree gives you an advantage over job applicants who do not have this training, a good specialization will put you ahead of those who have just a standard MBA. This is the theory of it at least. What happens in the marketplace may be something different entirely.Do You Need to Specialize?The problem with specializing your MBA course is that you limit the type of job that you can get once completing the MBA program. If you have specialized in finance but find it difficult to find a job in finance, you will end up applying for other types of management jobs and explaining why you have a specialization in finance that you aren’t using.This doesn’t mean you will never find a job outside of your area of specialization, since you do have all the basic MBA course knowledge. You will just have to explain that you are having trouble finding a job within your specialty when applying for jobs within other industries or types of management. That can be awkward and may reflect negatively on you.If you want the widest range of job opportunity possible after completing your MBA course, you should stay away from specializations. Just get a standard MBA from a well recognized and respected MBA program. Then use that education to apply for a wide variety of jobs until you get your foot in the door somewhere.This is the best strategy if your ultimate goal is to move your career forward or just start making some money. If you really want to aim to one specific industry, then it may be worth the extra year of study and limited opportunity to just go for a specialized MBA course.

Photography – Defining a Few Different Types of Photographic Styles

Traditional Photography. Custom photography. Lifestyle Photography. Photojournalism. These are all terms used to describe different photographic shooting styles, and they are all fairly well-known terms nowadays too. I have found though, that despite the number of people who have heard of these terms, very few actually know what the difference between them is. In the rest of this article, you will find explanations for what each term means and why you might choose to use one photographic style over another.Traditional photography is the type of photography most people have experienced. This would be your standard studios and department store studios. These photographers typically create their photographs in their own studio using their own props and equipment. They are often artificially lit using studio lighting. This style of photography is actually very well known for it’s very posed and perfected look. Everything and everyone is in their place and positioned just so. This type of photography is often used for portraiture, especially for families.If that doesn’t sound like the right fit for you, you may be interested in custom photography. Custom photography is actually a name used to describe several different sub-categories of style. Basically custom photography is about going a step up from the typical carbon-copied photos of the traditional photographer and selecting a photographer who will not only create images that directly reflect your family, but also provide you with an experience and service that just can’t be compared to traditional photography studios. Custom photography might be the style for you if you are interested in taking an active part in finding and working with a photographer to create truly unique pieces of artwork that reflect you.One subcategory of custom photography is lifestyle photography. Lifestyle photography is exactly what it sounds like – it’s photographs depicting someone’s lifestyle. Oftentimes you will find these pictures capture a family cooking in the kitchen, a couple watching a movie, or friends enjoying their time at the park. This style of photography is designed to take the everyday activities that we all take part in and make them seem grander and more opulent than we typically find them to be. This style of photography has actually become very popular among commercial photographers who take photographs for companies to market their products. Lifestyle photography is also great for creating more spontaneous and natural photographs of couples, weddings, kids, and families.Photojournalism is another subcategory of custom photography. Photojournalists originally were solely employed by papers and magazines to document events and tell the story through their picture. However, recently many photojournalists have brought their unique abilities into wedding photography. The goal of a true photojournalist is to stay in the background and be as invisible as possible and simply document the events of the day. If you are wanting formal posed photos, these photographers may not be your best choice but they certainly do know how to capture an event in a unique way.There are many other subcategories for custom photography and of course not everyone fits into a specific mold when it comes to their photographic style. There are so many different ways of shooting and so many different looks to photographers’ imagery. This wide range of options provides you with the perfect opportunity to find a photographer who truly fits your personality and style. And if you take the time to do this, you will be guaranteed to get pictures that best reflect you, your family, and/or your event.

Indian Laws and HIV/AIDS Patients

The Indian Law and HIV/AIDS PatientsIntroductionOne of the major challenges faced by our country is the HIV/AIDS. In India, about three million people are currently suffering from this epidemic. The disease cannot be cured completely but there are certain measures that can be adopted for its prevention. Various laws have been enacted by the Parliament for the betterment of the HIV community, but still people who are suffering from this disease face discrimination at work place and looked upon in the society. Despite bold initiatives and good intentions, hopeful promises and campaign slogans, it’s the epidemic which is wining.This article represents the scenario/legal status of the Aids community whose members have been reluctantly drafted from every segment of the society.What is AIDS?Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is the breakdown of the immune system. It is the final stage of HIV infection, where severe damage is done to the immune system and leads to fatal infections. South Africa has the largest population of HIV positives than any other country in the world at 5.9 million. Africa alone accounts for the 2/3rd of the deaths caused by HIV and is home to nearly 3 quarters of the youth living with the disease. The primary transmission of HIV is through sexual intercourse, transfer of infected blood, use of non sterile syringes and from an infected mother to her fetus.International AIDS SocietyThe IAS was founded in 1988 and is the largest association of HIV professionals in the world, with having 180 countries as its member. IAS members include community practitioners, clinicians, program and policy planners, and public health and researchers.International ConventionsIn relation to HIV/AIDS, for the protection of the rights of those who are suffering from HIV/AIDS, affected by it and those who are vulnerable to it, India has signed a number of treaties, declarations and agreements. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, are the two major conventions that solely aim towards the fair and unprejudiced treatment of those who are affected by the HIV.Article 25(1) of UN Human Rights Declaration enshrines certain rights which entitle the HIV positives to the standard of adequate living, medical care, assistance and necessary and other important/necessary social services.Legal Provisions for HIV Positives in Indian lawsIn India there is no law that deals with all or nearly all aspects or elements of HIV/AIDS and protects the HIV positives from being discriminated by the society and to uplift the mark of disgrace associated with this epidemic. The HIV/AIDS patients are conferred with the right of equality of treatment by virtue of Article 14 of the Constitution of India. Likewise, Articles 15,16 and 21 protect the HIV positives from discrimination and provide them right to life and personal liberty, ensuring their right to privacy. The state is directed to make certain that all citizens including HIV positives are to be provided with livelihood which is satisfactory or acceptable in quality or quantity. It is also the duty of the state to provide unbiased and tolerant working conditions.Article 47 of the Constitution of India assigns the state with the responsibility for improving the health conditions in its territory.HIV/AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill 2014HIV/AIDS Bill is a collective resourcefulness of the civil society and the Government. The Bill specifically prohibits the unjust or prejudicial behavior towards the HIV/AIDS patients in private as well in public areas of activity/interest in matters of education, healthcare, insurance, property and residence, employment and travel, etc. All the acts or omissions which are in actual or perceivable as inequitable come within the extent of this Act.The Bill furnishes that the assent for HIV testing must be determined, free and informed. It further assures that HIV status of the person will remain privileged and also furnishes the exceptions under which the information can be unfolded. It also thrusts a duty on HIV/AIDS patient for prevention of transmission of HIV virus through various means. The HIV/AIDS patients have been given a universal and free access to comprehensive treatment for HIV/AIDS and also for its prevention, care and support. The paramount focus of the Bill is upon the young persons and women. It imposes a responsibility upon the State to appoint IEC programmers which are that are based on evidenced, sensitivity of gender, appropriate for age, not regarded as worthy of disgrace and non-discriminatory.There is provision for appointment of health ombudsmen in each district. The Bill also envisages provisions for internal complaints mechanisms. The vulnerability of children, women and other persons towards the epidemic, who are in the custody of the State, due to various social, economic and other factors is acknowledged by the Bill and therefore they are provided with certain rights. The acknowledgement of the connection between HIV and sexual violence and provision for counseling is another important feature of the bill.Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Prevention and Control) Bill, 2010The paramount objective or the focal point of this act is to protect the HIV positives from being discriminated. This Act envisages penalties and penance for any discriminating act against the HIV positives. The propagation or publicizing of any information, which may spread hatred towards the HIV positives is punishable under this Act.The Bill prohibits any organization to make testing of HIV a precondition if a person has applied for employment, or is accessing health care, public places or for that matter, education. Moreover the Bill prohibits any organization from dismissing any HIV positive, except in the case where there is a written evaluation from a qualified health professional that the particular person poses the risk of transmission of the disease.The Bill safeguards provision people below 18 years and woman of any age from being convicted, wherein would be entitled to live in a shared property.The Bill strictly prohibits from conduction of forceful HIV test of any person. Informed consent of the person is a must. The test is required to be conducted after due investigation of the pros and cons of the test. An HIV/AIDS patient cannot be subjected to medical treatment without his consent.Rights of HIV/AIDS PatientsThe rights of HIV/AIDS patients as conferred by Indian laws are as follows:1. Right to treatmentPeople suffering from HIV/AIDS have the equal rights of treatment just as any other person suffering from any other ailment. Their right to treatment and proper care cannot be detained on the ground of their HIV positive status. Any denial towards the proper treatment and due care of HIV positives will amount to the act of discrimination. Various directions have been issued by the Supreme Court of India for the free of cost treatment of HIV/AIDS to those who need it.A matter where a petition was filed by the husband of a pregnant lady, infected with HIV, as she was denied proper treatment from the hospital, the Hon’ble High Court of Delhi gave strict and immediate orders to the hospital for the proper treatment and protection of health and life the mother as well as her fetus. Directions to arrange blood from authorized blood banks, as required, was also given by the Hon’ble Court.2. ConfidentialityAny person who has been distinguished to have HIV/AIDS has the right to keep their HIV/AIDS status private. There are a number of holdings where the Courts have given judgment in the favor of HIV positives. They are allowed to use pen names before the Court in order to hide their identity.The Supreme Court in Mr. X v. Hospital Z, impounded that anyone suffering from this epidemic deserve complete sympathy and respect just as any other human being. The denial of job opportunities to the HIV patients is unjust and unlawful. It was further held that even though it is the right of the patient to keep his status of HIV private, the right to confidentiality can be enforced in the situations where the patient stands the risk of transmitting the disease to his/her spouse.3. Right against discrimination and Right to employmentThe HIV positives, just like any other citizen of India, possess the right against unjust and prejudiced treatment. They cannot be denied employment and cannot be dismissed from their current employment on the ground that they are HIV /AIDS patients.Other ProvisionsApart from the legislation and various Acts mentioned above, there are certain other provisions enshrined in the Indian laws. The constitution of India guarantees the HIV patients with the right of equality in article 14 and right life and liberty in article 21. Some of the notable legislation are: Indian Medical Council Act, 1956, Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act 1986. The National AIDS Control Organization has issued a number of guidelines against the pre evaluation of the employees suspected of HIV.Suggestions/Recommendations1. The Government should enact a legislation which specifically prohibits and penalizes those public and private firms or organizations or offices who are observed to be showing discriminatory behavior towards the HIV/AIDS patients. It should impose heavy penalty if any firm is proved of the allegations of having discrimination towards the HIV positives.2. Campaigns to spread awareness about the rights of HIV positives must be scheduled by the government from time to time. Also various private communities and Non-Governmental Organizations should be encouraged to become a part of the campaign and reach out to the people who are less literate or live in remote areas.3. A national plan of action is the current need of the status of HIV positives in India. Laws may have been formed, legislation may have been adopted, but still there is a sense of untouchability among the people towards the HIV positives.ConclusionPeople living with HIV /AIDS and people related to them, must understand the link between human rights and HIV/AIDS. Mere acknowledgement of the programs and policies for the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS is not enough. Subsequent carrying out of such a policy is necessary. The discrimination towards the HIV positives itself is the destruction of the basic feature of the Constitution i.e. violation of Article 14 of the Constitution of India. It is time that we stop treating HIV positives as untouchables and start sympathizing towards them. It is the dire need of the society that people’s perception towards the HIV community should be changed.Policies alone cannot work for their betterment if the society itself is the prey of a feudal mentality.